Tuesday, 30 October 2012

Ways to Prevent the Extinction of Animals and Plants

1.  Humans have responsibility to protect endangered species and prevent extinction of the species.
2. We have to put in a lot of effort to ensure that endangered species are preserved for future generations.
3. There are many ways of preventing endangered animals and plants from extinction.
4. The following are some of the ways.
    (a) Organising campaigns against accessing logging
    (b) Educating the public about the importance of protecting and conserving animals and plants
    (c) Avoid consuming or buying products made from endangered species
    (d) Enforcing the law 

Why some species are endangered

Human activities are the main reason why these species are becoming extinct. Human activities that cause the specie to become extinct include :
a) illegal and excessive logging
b) illegal and excessive hunting
c) excessive development


A)Illegal and Excessive Logging
1.    Humans cut down trees to get wood or to clear land for farming.
2.    Logging activities become a threat to many species when they are carried out on a large scale.
3.    Some of the logging activities are illegal. They are carried out by irresponsible people who want to get quick profit.
4.    Illegal logging involves logging without licence, logging outside licensed areas and unauthorised construction of infrastructure and forest roads.
5.    These illegal and excessive logging activities cause many habitats to be destroyed.
6.    The loss of one plant species can lead to the extinction of many more species.
7.    This is because many species depend on the species of plant for their food and shelter. 



B) Illegal and Excessive Hunting
    1.    Some animals are hunted by humans for food or for commercial gains.
    2.    Illegal hunters always hunt these animals to make profit or just for fun.
    3.    Tigers are hunted and killed for their skins. The skins are made into coats.
    4.    Deer are killed by people for their meat.
    5.    Elephants are hunted for their ivory. Ivory is crafted into beautiful objects.
    6.    The rhinoceros is killed for its horn. Some people believe that the horn can be used as medicine. 
    7.    Illegal and excessive hunting causes these animals to become extinct. 


C) Excessive Development
1.    The world's population keeps increasing every day.
2.    Therefore, people need more resources and more land.
3.    People are using more resources such as wood to build houses.
4.    People need more land for farming and development.
5.    The increasing demand for land and wood causes many forest areas to be cleared.
6.    The forest is home to a wide variety of wildlife.
7.    When an area of forest is developed into a city, farm or residential area, the wildlife in the forest becomes extinct.
8.     A large number of species will be extinct if development is not properly planned.






Sunday, 21 October 2012

Top 10 Endangered Trees


When you think of something being endangered, you probably automatically think of animals. In the entire world, there are about 5,000 endangered species of animals, and despite the importance of protecting these endangered animals; there is also an importance in protecting endangered trees all over the world.

10. Loulu


If you’ve ever been to the Hawaiian Islands, you’ve possibly seen one of these trees during your visit. The 25 different variations of this tree are found on each island, some growing as large as 60 feet tall. Each island has its own species and every species is distinct, not only in size but where they grow and the color palm it provides. The trees only have one trunk and have various branches that grow palms on the end. There are young Loulu trees in many home gardens –  you can grow one of these trees in a pot until they start to mature; however, there are only about 300 Loulu trees in the wild.

9. Hinton’s Oak (Encino of Hinton)


You’ll find this tree in Mexico, mainly the southeast corner where there are three known species that thrive in the dry desert areas. The neat thing about the Hinton’s Oak tree is that the spring foliage is a bright red color that eventually turns to a dark green before they fall off. The bark of the tree is extremely dark, which sets a contrast to the red leaves. The trees can grow as large as 49 feet and are extremely important to many inMexico, as the wood of the tree is made to use handles for many utensils, such as knives.

8. St. Helena Gumwood


The St. Helena gumwood is definitely unique. In fact, it’s so unique that St. Helena Island chose it to be their national tree. The tree grows with a crooked trunk, but despite this it is able to support an umbrella-like canopy with an endless amount of branches. During the winter and into the end of the spring months, each branch produces white dangling flowers. Accompanied by the flowers are leaves that can be up to 5 inches long. Not only are these leaves somewhat large, but they are also hairy and can be a green color while others have more of a grey tone to them. In St. Helena, the population of this tree was once so large that is covered tropical forests all over.

7. African Blackwood (Mpingo)


In Swahili, the population of the African Blackwood continues to diminish. The name comes from the color of its heartwood which is a color closely resembling black. The tree is said to grow in areas where most other trees or plants couldn’t, as it prefers infertile and rocky soil. The Mpingo is also very slow growing, taking between 70-200 years to grow to a mature size and many only grow to be able 9 feet. tall. It is the national tree of Tanzania even though the tree can be found in about 26 different African countries, including Ethiopia, Angola, Senegal, and many others. This tree is great for those who do agricultural work as it is known to improve the fertility of the soil as well as the soil’s stability. The Blackwood is a great source of food for various herbivores as well as livestock as these animals will eat its leaves. Despite being a very hardy tree (most of the mature trees are even able to survive a fire), the population of the African Blackwood has been on the decline.

6. Monkey Puzzle


Just by the name, you can probably tell that this is a pretty unique type of tree. Represented as the national tree of Chile, the Monkey Puzzle can be seen all over Europe, especially in botanical gardens. Sometimes called the living fossil, the Monkey Puzzle can live thousands of years. In Chile, the tree is known as PehuĂ©n to the Pehuenche people. These people have a large history with the tree and often need it to provide a great part of their diet. The Monkey Puzzle tree provides nuts that people as well as animals often eat and are said to be very similar to pine nuts. The tree grows to about 131 feet tall but has a very slender trunk. The branches are often described as being thick and reptilian and the tree as a whole prefers to grow somewhere with a lot of rain, and cold temperatures aren’t a bother.

5. Honduras Rosewood


You can find the Honduras rosewood in Belize, Southern Mexico, and Guatemala. They are on the endangered list due to the heavy use of its lumber for various products. The timber produced with this wood is said to be some of the best but surprisingly, there isn’t too much information known about the tree. The wood that is taken from the tree is often of very high quality and the color is what really attracts people. The wood is usually a red purple color with streaks of black. The wood is so unique that people from all over vie to own some of it.

4. Clanwilliam Cedar




Often characterized as a majestic tree, the clanwilliam cedar can be found throughout the Western Cape Province of South Africa, especially in the Cederberg Mountains. The trees are extremely tall, growing up to 82 feet in height and they like to take things slow: some of these trees can live to be up to 1,000 years old, and it takes almost 30 years for a tree to produce seeds. The tree has foliage that is needle-shaped and is close together. The foliage often produces small cones at the end of each small twig during the autumn months.

3. African Baobab Tree


If you’ve ever seen The Lion King, you’ve seen a Baobab Tree. It’s the one Rafiki makes his home. The African Baobab tree is another on the list that has a long history. It is said that some of the trees in existence today have been around for at least 1,000 years. You will find these massive trees, often growing up to 82 feet in height, in the Blue Nile as well as Kordofan and Darfur. Not only is the African Baobab tall, its trunk is also pretty large, measuring in at an average of 32ft. in diameter but others can be as wide as 91 feet. The tree also has fruit, which is also seen in The Lion King, ranging from 3-17 inches that has a dry powdery pulp inside of it. The tree’s fruit is used for various things such as medicine and food.

2.  Dragon Tree


This tree probably has the coolest history on the list, but you’ll only find the Dragon Tree in Morocco, Madeira, the Cape Verde Islands, and on five of the seven Canary Islands. Tall and slender, the tree has prickly leaves with white-green flowers as well as brown berries that are recovered in a red sweet substance. The history behind this tree goes back for centuries. It is said that in Ancient Rome, the tree was used as a colorant that would cover iron tools. Many times the colorant was used as a varnish. The Dragon Tree also has history in various Greek myths. The most well known is one that tells the story of Hercules and the Apples of Hesperides.  Landon, the hundred-headed dragon is killed, who was said to be the guardian of Hesperides so that Hercules could bring back the three golden apples. When the dragon was killed, it is said that various Dragon Trees sprung up from Landon’s blood, which then flowed across the land, causing more trees to grow. Though the tree has so much history, that history may soon be cut short due to the declining number in population.

1. Bois Dentelle


The Bois Dentelle is a truly beautiful tree; sadly there are only two of these trees in existence today (both in Mauritius). This tree is not huge like others on this list; instead, the Bois Dentelle is pretty small, but the flowers that it provides are one of a kind. The flowers are in the shapes of a bell but the petals are lacy. Imagine a piece of cloth that is frayed at the end and you’ll see what these flowers look like. They are extremely distinct and only blossom between January and March. The white flowers hang off of long branches and are often in clusters.


Tuesday, 16 October 2012

Top 10 Endangered Animals


Sumatran Orangutan

The Sumatran orangutan is the most endangered of the two orangutan species. Found only in the northern and western provinces of Sumatra, Indonesia, the species is fast losing its natural habitat to agriculture and human settlements. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012.
















Mountain Gorilla

The mountain gorilla became known to science on 17 October 1902, and is a subspecies of eastern gorilla. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012.










Atlantic Bluefin Tuna

Tuna is perhaps the most high profile victim of unregulated and uncontrolled overfishing. Bluefin tuna populations have declined alarmingly over the past few decades. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012.

Leatherback turtle

The leatherback turtle has survived for more than a hundred million years, but is now facing extinction. Recent estimates of numbers show that this species is declining precipitously throughout its range. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012. 


Tiger

Less than 3,200 remain in the wild, we have lost 97% of our wild tigers in just over a century. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012.




















Snow Leopard

There are up to 6,000 snow leopards in the wild across 12 countries, but its numbers are gradually declining, with hunting and habitat loss just some of the reasons that it is endangered. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012. 










Vaquita

The vaquita is a very small porpoise that lives solely in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The species is critically endangered primarily as a result of entanglement in fishing nets. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012.











Irrawaddy Dolphin
Some populations are close to extinction such as those in the Mekong River and Malampaya Sound in the Philippines. The main threats are from fisheries bycatch and habitat loss. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012.









Javan Rhino

The Javan rhino is probably the rarest large mammal on the planet, with no more than 50 left in the wild and none in captivity. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012
. 
Asian Elephant
Sacred but exploited, the Asian elephant has been worshipped for centuries and is still used today for ceremonial and religious purposes. World Wildlife Fund has put together a top 10 list of endangered species to be on the look-out for in 2012. 










Top 10 Extinct Species


No. 10 - Steller's Sea Cow

 
Land cows eat grass, but these "sea cows" once grazed on kelp in the Bering Sea.
A relative of the smaller, much-beleaguered manatee, the gentle sea cows were over 25 feet long and may have weighed as much as 10 tons.
By the time German naturalist Georg Steller found and described them in 1741, their population was already threatened, perhaps due to hunting by indigenous peoples.
Their extermination would quickly continue with the arrival of Alaska-bound European fishermen and seal hunters. The sea cows were rapidly hunted for food, skins (used to make boats) and oil (for lamps), and by 1768, less than 30 years after Steller found them, the Steller's sea cow was extinct.


No. 9 - The Quagga

 
Once upon a time, the quagga was standard fare in European zoos. The caramel brown zebra subspecies has been missing from the planet since the 19th century, but that hasn't stopped some from trying to resurrect it.
Since 1987, the South Africa-based Quagga Project has been using selective breeding among plains zebras to mimic the animal's unique markings -- most notably, its distinctive striping pattern, which starts at the head but extends back only as far as mid-body.
Native to South Africa, the original quagga was hunted to extinction for its meat and hide. The last one died in an Amsterdam zoo in 1883.

No. 8 - Baiji White Dolphin

 
The Baiji white dolphin is one of the most recent species to fall victim to human civilization.
Native to the Yangtze River in China, the freshwater dolphin was nearly blind and quite intelligent. A 2006 expedition searched the Yangtze for six weeks, but didn't find any Baiji, marking an end to a species that had been a part of the river since ancient times.
The aquatic mammal had fallen prey to hunters and fishermen, as fishing boats, complete with their entangling gear, began to crowd the river in the 1950s and '60s. A reported sighting in 2007 raised hopes, but most scientists argue that if a few of the Baiji do still exist, their numbers are most likely so small as to make them "functionally extinct," meaning they're beyond a comeback.


No. 7 - The Saber-toothed Tiger (Smilodon)

 
Though there were once many species of saber-toothed cats, the most famous is Smilodon.
He's the cat you see in picture books about prehistoric times, the one that got trapped (and preserved) in the La Brea tar pits while hunting mammoths. He's been gone from the Earth for over 10,000 years now, but those huge canine teeth, now believed to be used primarily for (eek) ripping open prey, still inspire awe.
The cat itself was about the size of a modern-day lion (if not a bit shorter), but far more robust. Since the fierce predator once roamed freely in the grasslands and forests of North and South America, we should probably just be happy we're not living in the Ice Age.

No. 6 - Large Rodents (Josephoartigasia mones)

 
If you've spent much time in a large city, you've probably seen those large, inflatable rats that striking workers put up while protesting. Ever wonder what it would be like if that rat came to life?
The rodent that lived in South America between 2 and 4 million years ago was closer in relation to a guinea pig than a rat; however, fossilized remains discovered in 1987 indicate that Josephoartigasia monesi was 10 feet long and likely weighed over 1,000 pounds.
Yikes. Good luck finding an exterminator for that one.


No. 5 - Tasmanian Tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus)

 
The thylacine looked like something of a cross between a tiger (due to its stripes) and a dog (in terms of its build). However, it was in fact a carnivorous marsupial, complete with pouch.
Native to Australia, the thylacine was last seen on that mainland over 2,000 years ago. The tiger was hunted to extinction by the indigenous population, but had a safe haven of sorts in the island of Tasmania ... or at least it did until Europeans showed up.
Their heavy-handed hunting, prompted in part by farmers' protection of their livestock, brought the animal to minimalist numbers by the early 20th century. By then, efforts to protect it were too late.
The last one was caught in 1933 and died three years later in a zoo in Hobart, Australia.



No. 4 - Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis)

 
At nearly 3 feet tall, the great auk was a large bird, indeed, but a story involving one of the last living auks was perhaps more unusual than its size.
The last known auk in Scotland was executed in 1840, after local villagers thought that it was a witch. Really.
While the auk was unlikely actually a witch, the penguin-like species was the last flightless bird in the Northern Hemisphere and once inhabited islands off the coast of northern Europe and northeastern North America.
Hunted as food and bait, the last auks were observed in 1844 off the coast of Iceland. The nesting pair were killed by fishermen, who made sure not just to kill the birds for their pricey meat, but also to crush their lone remaining egg. Thanks, guys.



No. 3 - Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius)

 
How do you go from being the most common bird species in North America to being nothing more than a sad footnote in American history?
Well, it helps if you taste good.
While passenger pigeons were hunted as a crop nuisance for years, it wasn't until pigeon meat got popular that things took a turn for the worst. It also sure didn't help that westward-bound settlers were chopping down the birds' habitat at an alarming pace.
Over less than 100 years, the species that once blackened the sky as it roamed in flocks numbering in the billions was suddenly in a lot of trouble.
The last passenger pigeon died in a Cincinnati zoo in 1914. Her name was Martha.


No. 2 - The Dinosaurs, all of them

 
They were gone long before the first human graced the planet, yet they've still managed to capture the hearts of school kids across the globe, thanks to the toys, cartoons and museums full of skeletons extolling their prior existence.
And wouldn't it be nice if the dinosaurs all lived together like they do in the movies, playing, fighting and hunting? Think more The Land Before Time and less Jurassic Park, more plant-eaters and fewer Velociraptors. The reality is that many of the more famous dinosaur species never even crossed paths.
Stegosaurus lived way before Triceratops showed up; Tyrannosaurus wasn't feasting on Apatosaurus (he had been extinct for millions of years by that time); and they were all gone by the time human beings came around. But never mind that.
They've captured our hearts in a way that no other extinct animals have ... and when it comes down to it, we should probably just be thankful that we never knew those Velociraptors, right?



No. 1 - The Dodo (Raphus cucullatus)

 
Oh, dodo. Poor dodo. The flightless bird, native to the island of Mauritius, in the Indian Ocean, was known to mankind for less than 100 years ... but that's all it took for us to eradicate the species.
It wasn't so much that humans killed the stubby, rotund birds directly, but our decimation of their habitat and food source did an awful lot to hasten their demise.
And then there are the pigs, dogs and other predators that we introduced to the isolated island, where they ravaged the birds' nests and generally harassed them.
The last dodo died sometime in the late 17th century. Since then, the bird (a relative of pigeons and doves) has become a poster child for extinction and a reminder of the havoc we can wreak as human beings.

Monday, 15 October 2012

Endangered Species

Today many more species of animals and plants are facing the threat of becoming extinct. These species of animals and plants are called endangered species.

Hari ini lebih banyak spesies haiwan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan sedang menghadapi ancaman kepupusan. Ini spesis haiwan dan tumbuhan dipanggil spesies terancam.





http://www.kidsplanet.org/factsheets/map.html

Sunday, 14 October 2012

Extinction Of Animals

An extinct animals is an animal which no longer exists. Extinction of a species of animals occurs when all the animals of that species dies. This means there is not even a single animals of that species left in the world. Extinct species are lost forever.

Satu haiwan yang pupus adalah haiwan yang tidak lagi wujud. Kepupusan spesies haiwan berlaku apabila semua haiwan spesies telah mati.


Protecting Endangered Species

Animals and plants are natural resources that are very important to us. A lot of our food is obtained from animals and plants. We get raw materials such as wool, wood and rottan from animals and plants. Many of the ingredients for medicines are obtained from animals and plants. This shows that animals and plants are very important to humans. However, many species of animals and plants are extinction because of human activities. Therefore it is our responsibility to protect endangered species.

Haiwan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan adalah sumber semulajadi yang sangat penting kepada kita. Banyak makanan kita diperolehi dari haiwan dan tumbuhan. Kami mendapatkan bahan mentah seperti kayu, bulu, dan rottan daripada haiwan dan tumbuhan. Banyak bahan-bahan untuk ubat-ubatan yang diperolehi daripada haiwan dan tumbuhan. Ini menunjukkan bahawa haiwan dan tumbuh-tumbuhan adalah sangat penting untuk manusia. Walau bagaimanapun, banyak spesis haiwan dan tumbuhan pupus kerana aktiviti manusia. Oleh itu adalah menjadi tanggungjawab kami untuk melindungi spesies terancam.